Neurologisk forskning

Der findes masser af dokumenteret forskning om ikke-medicinsk behandling af ADHD og autisme. Medicinalindustrien og lægerne påstår ihærdigt, at alternativ behandling af ADHD og autisme ikke er dokumenteret, men det er bare ikke sandt.

 

Dokumentation af fiskeolie

Der florere stadig postulater og usikkerhed om, hvorvidt fiskeolie og dermed omega-3, DHA og EPA har en befordrende virkning for hjernen og den generelle sundhed. Lad det være sagt én gang for alle: Der findes tonsvis af videnskabeligt dokumentation for, at dét gør det. Et af de første videnskabelige studier er fra 2007 offentliggjort i den ansete: National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health – sidenhen er der kommet mange til – i artikel skrives blandt andet:
– Omega-3 fedtsyrer, docosahexaensyre (DHA) og eicosapentaensyre (EPA) er orthomolekylære og
fungerer udelukkende via cellemembraner, hvor de er forankret ved phospholipidmolekyler. DHA er bevist vigtigt for hjernens udvikling, mens EPA virker mere indflydelsesrig på adfærd og humør. Både DHA og EPA genererer neuroprotektive metabolitter. I dobbeltblindede, randomiserede, kontrollerede forsøg, har DHA og EPA kombinationer vist sig at gavne ADHD, autisme, dyspraksi, dysleksi og aggression. Læs mere her.

Betingelserne for at hjernetræning skal virke

I den anderkendte bog The Sharp Brains Guide to Brainfitness  findes en række interessante videnskabelige studier om træning og stimulering af hjernen. Bogen bidrager dermed til dokumentation af det danske behandlingskoncept Neurologisk Træning og Stimulering (NTS). Læs mere her.

ADHD findes ikke

Den amerikanske neurolog Richard Saul går nu til kamp imod diagnosticeringen af ADHD hos børn, han mener ikke at ADHD eksisterer og lægemidler mod ADHD gør mere skade end gavn. Han mener at symptomer som manglende evne til at være opmærksom på detaljer, uro, besvær med at sidde stille og impulsiv opførsel ofte automatisk associeres med diagnosen som ADHD, men faktisk ofte skyldes andre problemer, såsom syn- og høreproblemer,  jernmangel og kostvaner. Læs mere her.

Umættet fedt feder, men ikke så meget

En undersøgelse fra Technische Universität München viste i 2012 at olivenolie var det mest mættende fedtstof og øgede mæthedshormonet serotonin mest i forhold til smør og svinefedt.

Også i forhold til en kontrolgruppe, der skulle spise almindelig yoghurt, viste en gruppe, der spiste yoghurt med olivenolie at spise mindst.

Olivenolie-gruppens kalorieindtag forblev den samme, mens kontrolgruppen spiste ekstra 176 kcal om dagen.

Kan søvn bremse skizofreni, Alzheimer og ADHD?

Vi ved, at der er en sammenhæng mellem mangel på søvn og hjernesygdomme som Alzheimer, skizofreni, depression og ADHD. Folk sover for lidt, hvilket kan betyde, at der ophober sig affaldsproteiner, som skaber en inflammation i hjernen, der ødelægger hjernecellerne. det er Maiken Nedergaard, der netop har afsluttet et prisvindende forskningsprojekt, som har opdaget sammenhæng mellem søvn og hjernelidelser. Læs her.

Rigtig kost kan hjælpe ADHD-børn

En hollandsk undersøgelse (april 2011) viser, at seks ud af ti børn kan undgå medicin, hvis de får den rigtige kost. Tusinder af børn lider af sygdommen ADHD, der blandt andet giver sig udslag i, at de har svært ved at koncentrere sig, er hyperaktive og meget impulsive.

Børnene bliver i dag behandlet med medicin, der er i familie med det narkotiske stof kokain.

Men nu viser en ny hollandske undersøgelse, at seks ud af ti børn kan undgå medicin, hvis de får den rigtige kost. Undersøgelsen er offentliggjort i det anerkendte tidsskrift The Lancet.

– Hvis man kan helbrede 60 procent af børnene alene ved at lave en særlig diæt, så synes jeg, at det er et videnskabeligt gennembrud, siger Arne Astrup, leder af Institut for Human Ernæring ved Københavns Universitets Biovidenskabelige Fakultet.

Han mener, at Danmark er "forpligtet" til at efterprøve resultaterne fra den hollandske undersøgelse.
– Hvis vi kan eftervise og bekræfte de gode resultater, så er der jo tale om en revolution, siger Arne Astrup.

ScanBrit-studiet

En placebo-kontrolleret videnskabelig undersøgelse blandt 72 børn indenfor autisme-spektret, offentliggjort i den 3. april 2010, fastslår at en kost uden gluten og kasein (mælk) giver en signifikant ændring i positiv retning.

Nu har en gruppe forskere undersøgt, om de kan hjælpes gennem en kostomlægning. Forældre og behandlere har gennem de seneste år erfaret, at mange mennesker med autisme får det bedre, hvis de undgår hvedeproteinet gluten- og mælkeproteinet kasein i deres mad.

I projektet kaldet "ScanBrit-Studiet" fordi det bestod af skandinavere og briter, blev 72 danske børn i alderen 4-11 år med en diagnose inden for autismespektret fordelt i en diætgruppe (A) og en ikke-diæt gruppe (B). Forud for inddelingen blev børnene psykologisk testet og adfærdsmæssigt vurderet. Efter 1 år viste der sig en signifikant ændring i positiv retning i symptombilledet i gruppe A i forhold til gruppe B. Herefter blev også gruppe B sat på diæt, og studiet fortsatte endnu 1 år. I forhold til tidligere lignende studier, har ScanBrit-studiet kunnet forbedre metodikken på en række væsentlige områder: En randomisering af børnene i en diætgruppe og en kontrolgruppe, samtidigt med at fagpersonerne, som testede børnene, var holdt uvidende om det enkelte barns status i det første år. Dertil kom, at man i testningen af børnene inddrog internationalt anerkendte og standardiserede vurderingsredskaber. Resultaterne af studiet peger på, at nogle børn med en autismespektrumsforstyrrelse kan profitere af denne form for intervention, særligt i forhold til symptomer på uopmærksomhed og hyperaktivitet.

– På trods af en masse eksempler på børn, som har fået det meget bedre på en kasein- og glutenfri diæt, hersker der stadig stor skepsis blandt psykiatere og læger i Danmark. Med projektet her, har vi leveret et videnskabeligt bevis for, at diæt har en påviselig, positiv effekt, siger speciallærer og autismekonsulent Maureen Pilvang, der har været blandt initiativtagerne til projektet.

Omskæring giver autisme

Autisme: Et kontroversielt forskningsprojekt fra Statens Serum Institut viser, at drenge, der omskæres, har 46 pct. højere risiko for at udvikle autismeforstyrrelser. Dette kan blive en bombe under omskæringspraksis, mener forskeren. Læs ny rapport.

Børn, som tager medicin mod ADHD, har næsten dobbelt så stor risiko for at få hjerteproblemer.

Et nyt dansk forskningsresultat, som bygger på data fra 714.000 børn født i perioden 1990-1999, viser at risikoen for at få problemer med hjertet var 83 procent større hos børn, der fik ADHD-medicin, sammenlignet med børn uden en ADHD-diagnose.

- Det har overrasket mig, at den øgede risiko for hjerteproblemer var så høj, og at risikoen ikke kun gjaldt børn, som i forvejen var disponerede for at få hjerteproblemer, siger forskeren bag undersøgelsen, Søren Dalsgaard, til hjemmesiden og fortsætter:

- Det er et bekymrende resultat, og det viser, at vi klinikere fortsat skal være opmærksomme på risikoen for hjerteproblemer, når vi udskriver medicin til ADHD-patienter.

Tallene tyder også på, at der kan være en stor risiko forbundet med at gå fra en høj dosis af ADHD-medicinen Ritalin ned til en lavere dosis.

- Det var meget overraskende, at der kan være en risiko forbundet med at gå ned i dosis. Men det er noget, der kræver yderligere undersøgelser, før vi kan slå det fast, siger Søren Dalsgaard som er ansat ved Center for Registerstudier på Aarhus Universitet, til Videnskab.dk.

Søren Dalsgaard mener, at undersøgelsen bekræfter, at læger skal tænke sig om en ekstra gang, når de behandler ADHD med medicin.

I sammenligning med andre europæiske lande og USA udskriver danske læger dog medicin til langt færre børn med ADHD, skriver Videnskab.dk.

To procent af danske børn har diagnosen ADHD, som er en neuropsykiatrisk lidelse, som kendetegnes ved opmærksomhedsforstyrrelse, hyperaktivitet og impulsivitet. To tredjedele af børnene får medicin mod lidelsen.

Undersøgelsen er offentliggjort i det videnskabelige tidsskrift Journal of Adolescent and Psychopharmacology.

Mere forskning om ADHD

I en svensk undersøgelse, publiceret i Journal of Attention Disorder i april 2008, konkluderer 5 forskere fra Gøteborg Universitet, at omega-3 og 6 fedtsyrer giver en »meningsfuld« nedsættelse af ADHD-symptomerne.

I et forsøg med 75 børn og unge gav det således efter seks måneders indtag af fedtsyrerne en forbedring på 47% af børnene.

Benton, David: Vitamin/Mineral Supplementation and the Intelligence of Children-A Review. J of Orthomolecular Medicine 1995;7(1). A review of seven studies examining the impact of vitamin/mineral supplementation on children's performance in intelligence tests. The taking of supplements was associated with improved performance and may be associated with improved mood and the ability to sustain attention.

Schoenthaler SJ, et.al.: The effect of vitamin-mineral supplementation on the intelligence of American schoolchildren:a randomized, double blind placebo-controlled trial. J Altern Complement Med 2000; 6(2):19-29. This study of children ages 6-12 confirms that vitamin-mineral supplementation raised the non-verbal performance of school children whose diets lack essential nutrients. Supplementation resulted in a gain in IQ scores and academic performance.

Starobrat-Hermelin,B;Kozielec T: The effects of magnesium psychological supplementation on hyperactivity in children with ADHD.Magnes Res 1997;10(2):149-56. This study assesses the influence of Magnesium supplementation on hyperactivity in patients with ADHD. Children aged 7-12 years diagnosed as ADHD participated in this 6 month study. Results of the study recognized that a significant increase of magnesium, as measured in the contents of hair samples, showed a significant decrease in hyperactivity.

Schoenthaler SJ, Bier ID: The effect of vitamin-mineral supplementation on juvenile delinquency among American schoolchildren. J Altern Complement Med 2000;6(1):7-17. Violent and anti-social behavior, such as threats, vandalism, disorderly and defiant actions are linked to low concentrations of water soluable vitamins in the blood. Correction of the nutrient intake through vitamin-mineral supplementation improves brain function and lowers institutional violence and antisocial behavior. This was a study of schoolchildren aged 6-12 years.

Black MM: Zinc deficiency and child development. Am J Clin Nutr1998;68(suppl):464S-469S. Zinc, a trace metal present in the brain, contributes to its structure and function. There is evidence that a deficiency in this metal delays cognitive development and may interfere with cognitive performance. This article suggests that the relationship between a zinc deficiency and cognitive development may vary by the age of the child.

Kozielec T, Starobrat-Hermelin B: Assessment of magnesium levels in children with ADHD. Magnes Res1997;10(2):143-8. The conclusion from this recent study is that magnesium deficiency in children with ADHD occurs more frequently than in healthy children. The research focused on a group of 116 children, primarily boys, ages 9-12.

Stevens LJ, et al.: Omega-3 fatty acids in boys with behavior, learning, and health problems. Physiol Behav 1996;59(4-5):915-20. This study compared boys ages 6 to 12 with low fatty acid levels to those with higher level of fatty acids. More learning and health problems were found in the boys with lower fatty acid concentrations. Using the Connors' Rating Scale, this group was also found to have a greater number of behavior problems, temper tantrums and sleep problems.

Carlton RM, Ente G, Blum L.: Rational dosages of nutrients have a prolonged effect on learning disabilities. Altern Ther Health Med 2000;6(3):85-91. Learning disabled children in this study showed significant academic and behavioral improvements within a few weeks with treatment of nutrient supplements. A gain in reading comprehension occurred within the first year. The results of this study support the concept that learning disabilities may in some cases are a nutrient responsive disorder.

Colgan M, Colgan L.: Do nutrient supplements and dietary changes affect learning and emotional reactions of children with learning difficulties? Nutr Health 1984;3(1-2);69-77. Children in this study were given an individually designed vitamin and mineral supplement and their diets were changed to reduce sugars and refined foods. The subjects in the study, ages 5-15 years, were observed to have improvements in behavior in school as well as at home. The group also made great gains in reading skills and scored higher on standardized tests.

Bruner AB, et al.: Randomized study of cognitive effects of iron supplementation in non-anemic iron-deficient adolescent girls. Lancet 1996;348(9033):992-6. A group of teen aged high school girls who were determined to be iron deficient participated in an 8-week study. Results of screening at the end of trial period showed that girls who received iron supplementation performed better on verbal learning and memory tests than those who did not.

Benton D, Haller J, Fordy J.: Vitamin Supplementation for one year improves mood. Neuropsychobiology 1995; 32(2)98-105. This study explored the benefits of taking vitamin supplements as a way of influencing mood. Both the male and female subjects reported that after 12 months of taking vitamin supplements they experienced a more agreeable mood. Female subjects in particular reported a feeling of more composure and better mental health after an increase in their level of thiamin.

Walsh WJ et al.: Elevated blood copper/zinc ratios in assaultive young males. Physiol Behav 1997;49(1):327-9. Blood samples taken from a group of male patients age 3 to 20 years were analyzed for copper and zinc concentrations. The patients had been diagnosed as violence prone and assaultive. A statistically higher level of these elements than is normal was found in the blood samples of these patients, indicating a possible link to violent and aggressive behavior patterns.

Gibson RS.: Zinc, a critical nutrient in growth and development. New Zealand Medical Journal 1998; 111(1061). Signs of zinc deficiency can include genetic disorders, poor growth and weight gain among children, poor appetite and lethargy. Zinc supplements when used in conjunction with a balanced diet and adequate nutritional intake can improve and often eliminate these problems.

Department of Family Medicine, Pomeranian Medical Academy, Poland: The effects of magnesium physiological supplementation on hyperactivity in children with ADHD. Mag Res 1997; 10(2):149-56. The report from this institute states that dietetic factors can play a significant role in the origin of ADHD and that magnesium deficiency can result in disruptive behaviors.

Forskning af autisme

Werbach, Melvyn: Nutritional influences on aggressive behavior. J Ortho Med 1995; v.7, no. 1. Evidence is emerging that iron deficiency among adolescent males has been shown to be directly associated with aggressive behavior.

Schoenthaler, SJ, Bier ID: The effect of vitamin-mineral supplementation on juvenile delinquency among American schoolchildren:a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial. J Altern Complement Med 2000; 6(1):7-17. Numerous studies conducted in juvenile correctional institutions have reported that violence and serious antisocial behavior have been dramatically reduced after implementing nutrient dense diets.

Walsh,W: Zinc deficiency, metal metabolism, and behavioral disorders. Report of the Health Research Institute 1995. This study focuses on persons born with a metal-metabolism disorder often resulting in episodic violence, hyperactivity and conduct disorder.

Sever Y, Ashkenazi A, Tyano S, Weizman, A: Iron treatment in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. A preliminary report.

Neuropsych 1997; 35(4):178-80.A study of 14 boys aged 7-11 years using iron for therapeutic treatment of hyperactivity. The report recommends further study based on the finding that increased blood iron resulted in the reduction of aggressive behaviors.

Schoenthaler S: Vitamins Against Crime: Supplementation and antisocial behavior in institutions. Medical Nutrition 1990; 34-37. Brain function requires adequate nutrition, and correction of chronic undernutrition can improve antisocial behavior. Researchers have found that vitamin and mineral tests can be a good indicator of violent behavior.

Sanstead H: A brief history of the influence of trace elements on brain function. J Clin Nutrit 1986; 43:293-98. Historically iron, copper, manganese and zinc deficiency have been associated with mental impairment. Manifestations of such deficiencies include confusion, violence, dullness and death.

Schoenthaler S: Applied nutrition and behavior. J Applied Nutr 1991;43(1):31-39. This research showed that nutrient dense diets in 813 state facilities resulted in significantly improved conduct. The distribution of vitamin and mineral supplements was a significant factor in promoting less violent behavior.

Schrauzer G, Vroey E: Effects of nutritional lithium supplementation on mood. Biological Trace Element Res 1994; 40:89-101. The results of an intensive study of former drug users, violent offenders or those with a history of domestic violence assert that lithium supplementation has a mood improving and stabilizing effect. Authors suggest that a nutritional lithium supplement may be a valuable drug in violence and suicide prevention programs.

Lonsdale D, et al.: J of Advancement of Medicine 1994; 7(3):171-180. A review of the potential for high calorie malnutrition as a link for senseless violence and crime. The author asserts that if it is true that body chemistry plays a role in abnormal behavior, that it is largely a waste of time to treat violent criminals by incarcerating them and ignoring the critical factor of their diet.

Walsh W, et al.: Elevated blood copper/zinc ratios in assaultive young males. Physiology and Behavior 1997; 62(2)327-329. Stresses the importance of the study of different metal ratios and their association with behavior in an effort to identify those with increased risk. Improvement in biochemistry in these individuals is seen as very beneficial.

Carney MWP: Vitamin deficiency and mental symptoms. British Journal of Psychiatry 1990;156:878-882. Study reveals that 53% of unselected patients admitted to psychiatric hospital unit were vitamin deficient. Vitamin B deficiency has been associated with neuropsychiatric disorders and depression. Additionally, folic acid deficiency has been linked to affective illnesses.

Gottschalk L, et al.: Abnormalities in hair trace elements as indicators of aberrant behavior. Comprehensive psychiatry 1991; 32(3):229-237. The authors suggest that abnormal trace mineral metabolism may be involved in aggressive behavior and that careful mineral analysis could be effective in identifying those who are predisposed to such behavior.

Rosen GM, et al.: Iron deficiency among incarcerated juvenile delinquents. J Adolesc Health Care 1985;6:419-423. This study from 1985 can be viewed as one of the early looks at the effects of iron deficiency and abnormal behavior. Through research performed in juvenile detention facilities, a high prevalence of iron deficiency was found among both male and female inmates. The study suggests further research into the problem of behavior issues and iron deficiency.

Lead Exposure and Child Behavior: American Journal of Public Health 1992; 82(10):1356-1359. This study evaluated blood lead levels of young children. The group with the highest levels of lead present in blood samples was found to score the highest in Total Problem Behavior Score checklists.

Stevens L., et al.: Phospholipids influence behavior. The Nutrition Report 1996;38:(May-June). A study performed on equal number of young boys, half with low fatty acid measures, showed that behavior problems were significantly higher in the study group with the lower acid levels. Greater number of health and learning problems occurred in the lower level group as well.

Magnesium reduces hyperactivity. Autism Research Review 1998;12(2):4. Children in this study were ages 7 to 12. After a 6-month period, the control group, which received no magnesium supplementation, was found to have behavior that worsened, whereas the other children receiving magnesium supplementation therapy had statistically improved results in behavioral assessment scales.

Walsh W, et al.: Elevated blood copper/zinc ratios in assaultive young males. Physiol Behavior 1997;49(1):327-329. Research spanning a period of 20 years has revealed abnormal trace metal concentrations in violence prone young males 3-20 years of age. This study tested the validity of the observation that young assaultive males have elevated blood copper/zinc levels when compared to those with no history of assaultive behavior.

Schmidt K, et al.: Clinical ecology treatment approach for juvenile offenders. J Behav Ecology:Biosocial 1981:2(1). It was found through this study that hair copper levels of young males classified as delinquent, was found to be at a higher level than lab norms.

Lonsdale D, Schamberger R: Red cell transketolase as an indicator of nutritional deficiency. Am J Clin Nutr 1980;33(2):205-211. In a study of patients with biochemical evidence of thiamine deficiency related to junk food diets, the adolescents especially were found to be impulsive, irritable, aggressive and angered easily.

Schrauzer GN, Shrestha KP: Lithium in drinking water and the incidences of crimes, suicides and arrests related to drug addictions. Biol Trace E.em Res 1990;25(2):105-113. Data collected from 27 counties in Texas, when adjusted for population density, show that the incidence of homicide, suicide and rape were significantly high in areas where the drinking water contained little or no lithium. Results of this study suggest that low level doses of lithium have a beneficial effect on human behavior.

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research

– Dokumentation er data og informationer, som indsamles og forelægges med et bestemt formål, der kan anlægges en række forskellige perspektiver på dokumentation, der tydeliggør de konkrete formål og interesser, der gør sig gældende i dokumentationsarbejdet.
Der kan altid sættes spørgsmålstegn ved en dokumentations kvalitet, men når en lang række af hinanden uafhængige forskningsprojekter peger i samme retning, må man tage det alvorligt.

 

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– Den nyeste videnskab tegner et langt mere håbefuldt billede af potentialet for forbedringer af hjernen end den traditionelle viden, der stadig dominerer samfundet.

           --- Scott Barry Kaufman, psykolog

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– Den nyeste videnskab tegner et langt mere håbefuldt billede af potentialet for forbedringer af hjernen end den traditionelle viden, der stadig dominerer samfundet.

           --- Scott Barry Kaufman, psykolog - See more at: http://hjernetips.dk/forskning-understotter-nts#sthash.2HrD2Ruy.dpuf